Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could be an infection by this lentivirus from the family Retroviridae are characterised by an extended well amount once host immune defenses control the initial infection. 

    HIV is a blood-borne illness transmitted via contact with the blood of an infected individual: through 

    • Blood transfusions
    • Needle-sharing
    • Sexual contact 
    • From mother to kid throughout vaginal birth 
    • Breast-feeding.


    HIV is in a position to enter the body via intact mucous membranes, eczematous or abraded skin or membrane and by epithelial duct inoculation. 

    Once transmitted by sexual contact, HIV attaches initially to dendritic cells (e.g. Langerhans cells) or macrophages/monocytes; HIV exploitation CCR-5 (R5 viruses) as a co-receptor is then preferentially replicated. 

    HIV is obsessed by macrophages and replicated as shown for M cells within the mucosa. 

    HIV exposure to blood cells may result in the direct infection of T helper cells and also the transmission of R5 and X4 viruses (using CXC4 receptor as a co-receptor). 

    AIDS virus cannot replicate within the mosquito as a result of the shortage of replication of HIV in mosquitoes cells because of absence of T4 substance on cell surface. 

    T4 cells


    There are 2 totally different processes which may end in vector-transmission, which are

    • The primary is simple mechanical transmission of a microorganism by arthropods. This happens once the arthropod acts exclusively as a way of physical transport of infective agent particles between hosts (e.g., having viral particles in and around mouthparts). 
    • The second is biological transmissionThis happens when the virus replicates at intervals the arthropod vector throughout the fundamental quantity between feeding events.  on the basis of experimental proof and likelihood estimates, it's been complete that the probability of mechanical or biological transmission of HIV by insects is nearly nonexistent.  


    HIV isn't vector-borne as a result of either the mandatory genetic variation for such transmission has never arisen, or the mandatory selective factors that may build such variants increase in frequency over the relevant timescale haven't occurred. 

    Because it needs higher levels of viremia, leading to faster onset of AIDS. 

    Genetic trade-off between replication in human host and insect vector. 


    It has also been steered that squashing mosquitoes whereas they're feeding, and afterwards scratching the area (which might end in lacerations) may increase the probability of transmission still however it's controversial. 


    To suck blood from a number through a protracted and slender proboscis, feminine mosquitoes utilize pumping organs placed within their head. 

    The guts of a mosquito controls the cardiovascular system of the body  Mosquitoes are equipped with two pumping organs located in the head: 

    • The cibarial (CP) 
    • The pharyngeal (PP) pumps. 

    The first pump (CP) starts to expand first, then the second pump (PP) expands earlier with a time shift before the primary pump (CP) begins to contract, taking part in a key role in improving pumping performance. 

    The systaltic motion of the 2 pumps works consistently during a well-coordinated manner.  

    Blood is extracted from a host and transported to the most body of the insect through a food canal within the proboscis victimization the pressure gradient generated by the 2 pumps. 

    Thus saliva only contacts the human body from the salivary gland of mosquito and saliva not transmit aids because of lack of replication.


    At the start of the infection virus titres of 105-109 are reached within the blood, in exceptional cases up to 1014 genome copies/ml are observed. 

    During the symptomless part the infective agent load may drop to 2 genome copies/ml or to undetectable levels. 

    Thus, HIV seems to be a lot of less easily transmitted most likely thanks to lower titers of virus in body fluids. 


    • Chikungunya
    • Dengue
    • Lymphatic filariasis
    • Rift Valley fever
    • Yellow Fever
    • Zika
    • Japanese encephalitis
    • Lymphatic filariasis
    • West Nile fever
    • Lymphatic filariasis
    • Malaria


    HIV no longer continues to exist long outside the human body (inclusive of on surfaces), and it can not reproduce outside a human host. 

    Through saliva, tears, air, sweat, hugging, shaking hands, sharing toilets, sharing dishes, or closed-mouth or “social” kissing with somebody who has HIV.

    Alternative sexual activities that don’t involve the exchange of body fluids (for example, touching).


    Larval management is finished by removing standing water or by exploitation biological or chemical larvicides to eliminate mosquito larvae. 

    Drones are being designed for a range of mosquito control activities together with seeking hard-to-find pockets of water, accessing difficult-to-reach areas, and achieving quick and economical unleash of lab-reared mosquitoes within the wild.  

    Portable acoustic devices used for killing mosquito larvae in water in the wild, cell phones used for mapping mosquito distribution or robots enabling fast and efficient sorting and sexing of lab-reared adults for sterile male release programs might become key players in mosquito management in the near future.

    The market of fatal traps that use CO2, octenol, heat, or light – or a mixture of these – to lure mosquitoes in, then lure them in containers wherever they die is additionally growing exponentially. 

    Transportable and cheap deoxyribonucleic acid sequencers also are expected to facilitate fast and economical diagnosis of population structure and chemical resistance testing in mosquitoes. 

    One in all the ways presently being developed to manage mosquito-borne diseases consists of cathartic modified mosquitoes that are equipped to scale back the fertility of wild populations with whom they mate or to lower their ability to transmit pathogens.


    Mosquitoes is an disease spreading and important in vector borne disease but not HIV/AIDS because of following reasons

    • Genetic variation
    • Viral load is low
    • Sucking mechanism which saliva only contact and aids not transmitted by saliva
    • Mosquitoes have no T Cell by which HIV can adhere or target point 


    • Day T, Mideo N, Alizon S. Why is HIV not vector-borne?. Evol Appl. 2008;1(1):17-27. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2007.00014.x.
    • Iqbal MM. Can we get AIDS from mosquito bites? J La State Med Soc. 1999 Aug;151(8):429-33. PMID: 10554479.
    • https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/hiv-transmission/not-transmitted.html
    • German Advisory Committee Blood (Arbeitskreis Blut), Subgroup ‘Assessment of Pathogens Transmissible by Blood’. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Transfus Med Hemother. 2016;43(3):203-222. doi:10.1159/000445852.
    • Bo Heum Kim, Hae Koo Kim, Sang Joon Lee. Experimental analysis of the blood-sucking mechanism of female mosquitoes. Journal of Experimental Biology 2011 214: 1163-1169; doi: 10.1242/jeb.048793
    • https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/vector-borne-diseases
    • Fouet C, Kamdem C. Integrated Mosquito Management: Is Precision Control a Luxury or Necessity?. Trends Parasitol. 2019;35(1):85-95. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2018.10.004

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