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    41.Murraya paniculata (L.) 

    Murraya paniculata, usually identified as orange jasmine, orange jessamine, china box or mock orange, is a species of shrub or small tree. 

    Murraya paniculata grows in rainforest, usually as an understorey shrub in vine thickets, as well as behind beaches. 

    It's native to South and Southeast Asia, China and Australasia, the distribution space extends from Pakistan via India and southern China to Taiwan, the Philippines and the Mariana Islands, to the south via Asian nations and Republic of Indonesia to New Guinea and parts of Australia. 

    It has swish bark, pinnate leaves with up to seven oval to elliptical leaflets, aromatic white or cream-coloured flowers and oval, orange-red berries containing furry seeds. 

    Its leaves are utilized in making ready soup, fish, meat and chicken dishes. 

    The ground bark of the stem is employed in numerous drinks whereas ground root is additionally eaten.

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Sapindales

    Family: Rutaceae

    Genus: Murraya

    Species: M. paniculata

    Medicinal uses

    Various biological activities of Murraya paniculata have been proven like 

    • Analgesic
    • Anti-giardial
    • Anti-amoebic
    • Antidiarrhoeal
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Larvicidal
    • Antioxidant
    • Anti-implantation
    • Anti-diabetic
    • Antinociceptive
    • Oxytocic 
    • Antifungal 

    Murraya paniculata comprises 

    • Indole alkaloid
    • Oxygenated flavones
    • Sesquiterpenes (Lcadinene)
    • Methyl radical anthranilate 
    • Sesquiterpene alcohol
    • Methyl Salicylate
    • α- cubebene 
    • Β-cubebene
    • β-cyclocitral 
    • Iso germacrene
    • Trans-nerolidol
    • (-)-cubenol
    • Β-caryophyllene
    • Germacrene D 
    • Cyclic-germacrene. 

    Murraya paniculata possesses anti-spasmodic, bronchodilator and vasodilative impact mediated presumably through Ca++ antagonist property. 

    The ground bark of the stem is used as a cure in snake bites while ground root is used to cure body ache. 

    The leaves are stimulant, astringent and utilised by the local people for relief from symptom and dysentery. 

    It's also used to treat cough, hysteria and rheumatism. 

    Methanolic extract of leaves was found to be active against each gram-positive and gram-negative human morbific microorganism like escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella typhi, Enterobacter faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigella flexinerii, coccus aureus, and enterobacteria sonneii. 

    Highest activity was incontestable against P. aeruginosa. 

    The bactericide activity was attributed to presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and synthetic resin compounds within the extract. 

    Aqueous extract of leaves reportedly showed antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens like E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis

    It's taken as a drink for the treatment of venom bite or as a scrubber on bitted limbs. 

    The root and bark is chewed and rubbed to skin to cure body aches. 

    The crushed leaf is applied on fresh cuts, and drunk in oedema as remedy. 

    It may be utilized in treatment of stomachache and gout. 

    It's an abortive function and used in treatment of genital disease. 

    Colloquial names

    English: Orange Jasmine, Chinese box 

    Tamil: வெங்காரை Vengarai, Kattu-karuveppilai, Malailakkadi -Hi, Kamini, Marchula, கொஞ்சி Konci, கடற்கொஞ்சி Katar-konci

    Malayalam: Maramulla, കാട്ടു കറിവേപ്പ് Kaattu Kariveepp, മരമുല്ല Maramulla, Kattu-kariveppu

    Hindi: Kamini कामिनी, Mar Chula

    Nepali: कामिनी फूल Kaamimi Phool, सिमाली Simaali, बजरदन्ते Bajaradante 

    Mizoram: Mungti

    Assamese: কামিনী Kamini, Kamini-kanchan, Kamini

    Bengali: কামিনী Kamini

    Gujarati: કામીની Kamini, જાસવંતી Jaswanti

    Manipuri: কামিনী কুসুম Kamini kusum 

    Telugu: నాగగొలంగ Naga-golanga

    Marathi: कुन्ती Kunti, पांढरी Pandhari

    Kannada: ಕಾದು ಕರಿಬೇವು Kadu Karibevu, Angara Kina

    Dental uses

    Murraya paniculata stem may be utilized in treatment of toothache.

    Brushing teeth with stems of Murraya paniculata to get relief from toothache and for maintaining oral health such as in healthy gums and teeth.

    Local people in Bangladesh are using the plant leaves to boil with water and add a little pinch of table salt then gargling with the boiled water for three to four times daily for three days for dental related problems.

    Photo credit: Michael Wolf (Wikimedia Commons)

    42.Ocimum sanctum L. 

    Ocimum sanctum L. (also acknowledged as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tulsi, Holy basil). tulsi is cultivated for spiritual and traditional medicine purposes, and for its essential oil. 

    It's widely used as a herbal tea, usually used in Ayurveda, and features a place within the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, during which devotees perform worship involving holy basil plants or leaves. 

    Tulsi is a sacred plant for Hindus and is loved because of the avatar of Lakshmi. 

    Traditionally, tulsi is planted within the center of the central courtyard of Hindu homes or could also be big next to Hanuman temples. 

    It is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics. 

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Lamiales

    Family: Lamiaceae

    Genus: Ocimum

    Species: Ocimum sanctum

    Medicinal uses

    Tulsi is taken into account to be an adaptogen, reconciliation completely different processes in the body, and useful for adapting to stress. 

    Marked by its sturdy aroma and astringent taste, it's regarded in Ayurveda as a sort of ‘elixir of life’ and believed to promote longevity. 

    Tulsi extracts are utilized in Ayurvedic remedies for common colds, headaches, abdomen disorders, inflammation, heart disease, numerous types of poisoning and malaria. 

    Traditionally, O. sanctum L. is taken in several forms, as seasoner tea, dried power or recent leaf. 

    Tulsi is suggested as a treatment for a spread of conditions together with 

    • Anxiety
    • Cough
    • Asthma
    • Diarrhea
    • Fever
    • Dysentery
    • Arthritis
    • Eye diseases
    • Otalgia
    • Indigestion
    • Hiccups
    • Vomiting
    • Gastric disorders 
    • cardiac and genitourinary disorders
    • Back pain
    • Skin diseases
    • Ringworm
    • Insects
    • snake and scorpion bites 
    • Malaria.

    Tulasi possess 

    • Antimicrobial (including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, anthelmintic)
    • Anti-diarrheal
    • Anti-oxidant
    • Anti-cataract
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Anti-diabetic
    • Anti-hypercholesterolemia
    • Anti-hypertensive
    • Anti-carcinogenic
    • Analgesic
    • Antipyretic
    • Anti-allergic
    • Immunomodulatory
    • Chemopreventive
    • Radioprotective
    • Hepato-protective
    • Neuro-protective
    • Cardio-protective 
    • Central nervous system depressant
    • Memory enhancement, 
    • Anti-asthmatic
    • Antitussive
    • Diaphoretic
    • Anti-thyroid
    • Anti-fertility
    • Anti-ulcer
    • Antiemetic
    • Antispasmodic
    • Anti-arthritic
    • Adaptogenic
    • Anti-stress
    • Anti-cataract
    • Anti-leucoderma 
    • Anti-coagulant.

    Tulsi has been found to guard organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and significant metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. 

    Tulsi has additionally been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, pressure level and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. 

    Ethanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum L. was investigated for traditional wound healing and dexamethasone-depressed healing. 

    The extract considerably inflated the wound breaking strength, wound epithelialized quick and wound contraction was significantly increased beside increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight and granulation tissue breaking strength. 

    Colloquial name

    English: Holy basil 

    Tamil: Thulasi

    Malayalam: Trittavu

    Hindi: Tulsi तुलसी 

    Marathi: Tulshi 

    Manipuri: Tulsi 

    Angami: Nhietso, Nietso

    Sanskrit: Tulasi, Tulssi, Surasa, Krishnamul, Vishnu-priya

    Bengali: Krishna tulasai

    Brazil: manjericao-branco

    Chinese: sheng luo le

    Dental uses

    Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse might prove to be a good  solution because of its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. 

    Ocimum sanctum mouthwash is way additional cost effective than chlorhexidine and is well available.

    Tulsi is also best to be used in halitosis because of its astringent content.

    43.Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. 

    Phoenix sylvestris (sylvestris - Latin, of the forest) also best-known as silver date palm, Indian date, sugar date palm or wild date palm, is a species of flowering plant in the palm family native to southern Pakistan, most of Bharat, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma and Bangladesh. 

    The sap is tapped and drunk fresh or fermented into toddy. The fresh sap is boiled to form palm jaggery in West Bengal state of India and Bangladesh.

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Arecales

    Family: Arecaceae

    Genus: Phoenix

    Species: P. sylvestris

    Medicinal uses

    Amino acids (mainly alanine), vitamins A, B, and D, sugars, tannins, mucilage and antioxidants are found in fruits. 

    Fruits of the plant are wont to treat 

    • Back pain
    • Stomachache
    • Toothache
    • Headache
    • Arthritis
    • Pain of buttocks
    • Fever
    • Piles
    • Nervous debility
    • Nervine tonic
    • Restorative
    • Sedative
    • Cough
    • Diarrhea
    • Dysentery
    • Opthalmia
    • Opacity of cornea
    • Aphrodisiac
    • Cooling 
    • Gastric stimulant

    Aqueous extract of the fruits has been found to inhibit the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Proanthocyanidin, a polyphenolic substance belonging to the flavonoid group, has been isolated from the fruits of P. sylvestris. 

    P. sylvestris fruits demonstrate its intensive application in several painful conditions and neurological disorders. 

    P. sylvestris also gives the proof of inhibition of peripheral inflammatory mediators cherish COX, LOX, PGs in pain inhibition. 

    Additionally the neuropharmacological analysis additionally suggests the sleep enhancing and anxiolytic potentiality of P. sylvestris fruit that is presumably mediated via GABAergic pathway. 

    Methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp possesses sturdy central and peripheral antinociceptive activity similarly as central nervous system depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity.

    Colloquial name

    English: Wild Date Palm, date-sugar palm, Indian wild date, Indian winepalm, silver date palm, sugar date palm, sugar palm 

    Tamil: ஈந்துபனை inthupaanai, காட்டீஞ்சு kattinchu, இசம் Icham 

    Malayalam: കാടിനൊത്ത kaattiintha, കാട്ടീന്തല്‍ kaattiinthal, നീലന്തെണ്ട് niilanthent 

    Sanskrit: खर्जूरः kharjurh, खर्जूरी kharjuri, नेपाली nepali 

    Nepali: kandela, taadii

    Hindi: खजूर khajur, सेंधी sendhi 

    Manipuri: থাঙতুপ thangtup 

    Oriya: khorjurri 

    Konkani: खाज्जूर khajjur, Bonoriya-khejur

    Urdu: کهجور khajur 

    Assamese: খাজুৰি khaajuri 

    Gujarati: ખજૂરી khajuri 

    Telugu: ఈత ita 

    Kannada: ಈಚಲು ichalu, ಖರ್ಜೂರ kharjura 

    Bengali: খর্জূর kharjura, খেজুর khejura 

    Marathi: खारीक kharik, खर्जूर kharjur, खर्जूरी kharjuri, शिंद shinda, शिंदी shindi 

    Dental uses

    The roots and young rachis used for toothache and toothbrush. 

    Analgesic properties of plants helps in relieving from oral pain. 

    Plant extract has antimicrobial properties and hence it can revert back biofilm formation of streptococcus mutans and prevent progression of dental caries.

    44.Piper nigrum L. 

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is cultivated for its fruit, referred to as a peppercorn, that is typically dried and used as a spice and seasoning. 

    Once contemporary and totally mature, the fruit is about 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter and dark red, and contains a single seed, like all drupes. 

    Peppercorns and also the ground pepper derived from them is also represented merely as pepper, or a lot of precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit), or white pepper (ripe fruit seeds).

    Black pepper is native to present-day South India, and is extensively cultivated there et al. in tropical regions. 

    Ground, dried and cooked peppercorns have been used since antiquity, both for flavour and as a traditional medicine. 

    Black pepper is the world's most traded spice, and is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world. 

    Its spiciness is due to the chemical compound piperine, which is a different kind of spicy from the capsaicin characteristic of chili peppers.

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Arecales

    Family: Arecaceae

    Genus: Phoenix

    Species: P. sylvestris

    Medicinal uses

    The root of P. nigrum is used by the people of Thailand in the form of ghee, powders, enemas, and balms to treat to abdominal tumors, abdominal fullness, adenitis, cancer, cholera, cold, colic, kidney stone, asthma attack and headache. 

    In addition, the plant is also utilized in traditional Chinese drugs to treat epilepsy and applied in some formulae to treat respiratory or gastric cancers in China. 

    P. nigrum is also used in traditional Middle Eastern medicine as a nerve tonic.

     In traditional Ayurvedic medicine, P. nigrum is used in combination with P. longum to treat intermittent fevers, to market the secretion of bile and suggested for neurological, broncho-pulmonary and duct disorders, (including dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation and hemorrhoids). 

    Folk medicine uses fruits and leaves of P. nigrum for the treatment of coughs, intestinal diseases, bronchitis, genital diseases, and rheumatism. 

    General application of P. nigrum for treating diarrhea, fever, cold, intestinal colic disorder and stomachic conditions.

    Moreover, the seed is applied internally in Western herbalism to treat indigestion and wind, and in Chinese drugs to treat stomach chills, food poisoning, cholera, dysentery, diarrhoea and vomiting caused by cold.

    The antioxidant mechanisms of black pepper extracts is also attributed to a powerful hydrogen-donating ability, metal chelating ability, and the effectiveness of those extracts pretty much as good scavengers of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and free radicals. 

    Black pepper (P. nigrum) volatile oil has been proven to possess antimicrobial activity. 

    The phenolic resin compounds of black pepper are believed to be answerable for this antimicrobial activity by damaging the membranes of microorganisms restricting their growth. 

    Colloquial name

    English: Black Pepper

    Tamil: மரிசம் Maricam,Milaku,மிளகு Milaku, Kurumilagu

    Malayalam: നല്ലമുളക് Nallamulak,കുരുകുളക് Kurukulak

    Hindi: ऊषण Ushan,काली मिर्च Kali Mirch

    Assamese: জালুক Jalook, Jaluk,Gulmorich,Jalook

    Kashmiri: मरिचम् Maricham

    Sanskrit: उल्लाघः Ullaghah,मरिचं Maricham,कृष्ण Krsna,उषणम् Usanam

    Konkani: मीरे Miire,पोख्ळें मीरीं Pokhlem Mirim

    Marathi: मरीच Marich,काळी मिरची Kali Mirachi,मिरवेल Miravel

    Oriya: Dolo Maricho

    Telugu: మిరెము Miriyamu,మరిచము Marichamu

    Bengali: কালা মরিচ Kala Marich

    Mizoram: Thinghmarcha

    Gujarati: કાળા મરી Kala Mari

    Kannada: ಕರಿ ಮೆಣಸು Kari Menasu

    Urdu: سياه مرچ Siyah Mirch,اوشن Ushan

    Dental uses

    Piper nigrum is used in the treatment of oral abscesses, dental caries and tooth aches. · 

    Brushing with a herbal toothpaste with Piper nigrum, syzygium aromaticum, Zinziber officinale together of the most important parts for a period of twelve weeks ,showed a big reduction within the gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and salivary anaerobic bacteria count and overall improvement in oral hygiene.

    45.Psidium guajava L.

    Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions round the world, guava fruits will range in size from as tiny as an apricot to as massive as a grapefruit. 

    Numerous cultivars have white, pink, or red flesh, and a couple of conjointly featured red (instead of green or yellow) skin. 

    Due to the assorted commercial applications, guava trees are found throughout India. 

    Although they're planted in most states, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and province are the vital cultivators of this plant. 

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Myrtales

    Family: Myrtaceae

    Genus: Psidium

    Species: P. guajava

    Medicinal uses

    Psidium guajava has been used in traditional medicine in several cultures throughout Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia. 

    It is used for 

    • Inflammation
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
    • Wounds
    • pain relief
    • Fever
    • Diarrhea
    • Rheumatism
    • Lung diseases
    • Ulcers.

    Guava is employed in gastrointestinal infections such as diarrhea, dysentery, stomach aches, and indigestion. 

    Quercetin, a significant flavonoid and one among the foremost reported active constituents found in guava leaf, has been incontestable to reduce capillary permeability within the abdominal cavity and inhibit intestinal movement. 

    The antibacterial activity of organic extract of guava leaves against bacterial clinical isolates (Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from patients with surgical wound, burns, and skin and soft tissue infections.

    Guava leaves (methanol and ethyl acetate extracts) against a chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum have been reported. 

    A guava leaf tea (Bansoureicha®) is currently commercially obtainable in Japan that contains aqueous guava leaf extract associated is approved mutually of the Foods for nominal Health Uses. 

    Adding moderate amounts of guava fruit to the diet ends up in a decrease in blood serum total sterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure, with an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 50% of the treated patients. 

    Guava was commonly reported mainly for catamenial disorders, amenorrhea, profuse uterine bleeding, blennorrhagia, and postpartum hemorrhage. 

    The use of guava leaf simmering for uterine hemorrhage as a wash for vaginal and uterine problems, particularly wherever an astringent remedy is needed. 

    Ethanolic extracts of guava leaf were reported to stop renal injury induced by paracetamol. 

    Due to the high nutritional value of guava, this plant is often included among superfruits. 

    Guava fruit is rich in 

    • Vitamin A 
    • Vitamin C
    • Folic acid
    • Dietary fiber

     as well as dietary minerals such as 

    • Iron
    • Manganese
    • Potassium
    • Copper. 

    It is known that a single guava fruit contains about four times the amount of Vitamin C as an orange. Hence, guava is known as “poor man's apple of the tropics.”

    Decoction prepared from 100g guava leaves taken daily was documented to be a remedy for curing lung and stomach cancers. 

    Colloquial name

    English: Guajava,Guava,Common guava

    Tamil: கொய்யா Koyya,கொய்யா Sigappu Koyyaa

    Malayalam: Adakka Pazham,Malakkappara,Pera,Koyya,Pela,Perakka

    Hindi: Amrood अमरूद

    Assamese: মধুৰি-আম Madhuri aam 

    Gujarati: જામફળ jaamkal, જમરૂખ jamrukh 

    Telugu: గొయ్యాపండు Goyyapandu 

    Urdu: امرود Amrud 

    Manipuri: Pungton 

    Bengali: পেয়ারা Peyara

    Kannada: ಪೇರಲೆ Perale, ಸೀಬೆ Seebe, ಸೀಬಿ Seebi 

    Konkani: पॅर्र Pairr

    Marathi: Jamba, Perunjaam, Tupkel 

    Nepali: अम्बा amba, बिहिँ bihi

    Mizoram: Kawlthei

    Dental uses

    Raw young leaves and tender shoots of guava have been used for toothache and mouth ulcers.

    Guava leaves were usually utilized by traditional people for treating dental infections. 

    Guava twigs are effective once used as “chewing sticks”.

    The aqueous leaf extract of guava was found to own cidal action against oral pathogens related to earlier stages of plaque formation, viz., 

    • Streptococcus sanguinis

    • S. mitis

    • Actinomyces sp.,

    46.Punica granatum L. 

    The pomegranate originated within the region extending from Iran to northern India, and has been cultivated since history throughout the Mediterranean region. 

    It was introduced into Spanish America in the late sixteenth century and into california by Spanish settlers in 1769.

    It is widely cultivated throughout the center East and Caucasus region, north and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, the drier parts of Southeast Asia, and parts of the Mediterranean Basin. 

    It is additionally cultivated in parts of Arizona and the San Joaquin Valley in California.

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Myrtales

    Family: Lythraceae

    Genus: Punica

    Species: P. granatum

    Medicinal uses

    The fruit and the bark of the pomegranate is employed as a standard remedy against diarrhea, infectious disease and intestinal parasites. 

    The seeds and juice are thought-about a tonic for the heart, throat, eyes and for a variety of purposes, such as stopping nose bleeds and gum bleeds, toning skin, firming-up sagging breasts and treating hemorrhoids. 

    In the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing on treatment and prevention of 

    • Cancer
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Diabetes
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • Bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance
    • Ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. 

    Other potential applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and obesity. In treating diarrhea, dysentery and intestinal parasites. 

    Pomegranate is well known for antioxidant properties. It helps in preventing the formation of skin cancer by reducing the frequency of lesions. 

    It provides relief from minor skin irritations, such as dry skin, eczema and psoriasis. 

    For conjunctivitis; a paste of the leaves is applied on the red part of the eye. 

    This can be also useful in healing scabies, eczema, itchiness and ringworm. 

    pomegranate juice-treated growth cells that had not died with the treatment showed inflated cell adhesion and reduced cell migration.

    For diarrhea, dysentery, nose bleeding, prolapsed rectum and leucorrhea powdered dried rind with fenugreek decoction and a sip of honey are beneficial. 

    The bud also can be snuffed just in case nose hemorrhage.

    Pomegranate seed extract provides iron to blood and thus, facilitates to decrease the anemic symptoms together with fatigue, dizziness and weakness and deafness. 

    Pomegranate beverage is additionally renowned to be terribly useful in treating problems with erectile dysfunctions. 

    It's a good natural aphrodisiac and improves gamete count and sperm quality.

    Colloquial name

    English: Pomegranate

    Tamil: மாதுளை Madulai 

    Malayalam: മാതളനാരകം Maathalanarakam  

    Hindi: Anar अनार 

    Mizoram: Theibuhfai, Manding 

    Telugu: దానిమ్మ Danimma 

    Kannada: ದಾಳಿಂಬೆ Daalimbe, ದಾಳಿಂಬ Daalimba, ದಾಡಿಂಬೆ Daadimbe, ದಾಡಿಂಬ Daadimba, ದಾಡಿಮ Daadima 

    Manipuri: Kaphoi 

    Marathi: Dalimb डाळिंब 

    Urdu: ﺍﻧﺎﺭ Anar

    Dental uses

    For gum bleeding and bleeding of the teeth; the fruit rind powder mixed with black pepper, common salt, and applied. 

    Such preparation whitens teeth, strengthens gum and same to stop pyorrhea. 

    Pomegranate is employed as a gargle for sore throat, and it is applied to the skin to treat hemorrhoids.

    47.Ricinus communis L. 

    Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant. Its seed is the castor bean, that, despite its name, isn't a bean. 

    Castor is autochthonous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, however is widespread throughout tropical regions (and widely mature elsewhere as a decorative plant).

    Castor seed is the source of castor oil, which contains a big variety of uses. 

    The seeds contain between 40% and 60% oil that's rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinolein. 

    The seed also contains ricin, a water-soluble toxin, which is additionally present in lower concentrations throughout the plant.

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Malpighiales

    Family: Euphorbiaceae

    Genus: Ricinus

    Species: R. communis

    Medicinal uses

    R. communis contains 

    • Antimicrobial
    • Antifungal
    • Anti- cancer
    • Antidiabetic
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Antimalarial
    • Antioxidant
    • Central analgesic
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Antinociceptive
    • Anthelmintic
    • Antifertility
    • Laxative
    • Uterine contracting
    • Anti-implantation
    • Anti- asthmatic
    • Bone regeneration
    • Molluscicidal
    • Antiulcer
    • Antihistamine
    • Wound-healing
    • Cytotoxic
    • Insecticidal
    • Anti-arthritic
    • Anti Dandruff 
    • Hepatoprotective

    The oil derived from these leaves is employed in relieving flatulence in infants. 

    An infusion of leaves is used as an eye lubricant and conjointly for relieving stomach ache. 

    The leaves as such are used as a simmering or poultice and applied to breasts of females for a rise in milk secretion (lactation). 

    Fresh juice obtained from leaves has been reportable for its use as an emetic within the poisoning of narcotics like opium. 

    Some have reported that leaves are often helpful against jaundice.  

    R. communis and its phytochemicals are found to own antimicrobial properties against various microorganisms. 

    A number of the reported antimicrobial activity of the crude extract includes inhibition of various bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    antifungal activity of R. communis extract against various fungal species, the most antifungal activity was shown against Candida albicans, and lowest activity was detected against Alternaria solani.

    Methanol and an aqueous part that have shown activity against specific cancer cell lines such as melanoma, MCF7 (Breast cancer), HepG2 (Hepatic cancer), PC3 (Pancreatic cancer), and cervical cancer. 

    R. communis exhibited the mast cell stabilizing result due to glucoside content in its roots, whereas flavonoids are liable for bronchodilation and smooth muscle relaxant activity.  

    The ethanolic extract was effective in reducing the milk induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia because of the presence of flavonoids and saponins. 

    Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction by involving unsaturated fatty acid activating prostaglandin receptors 2. castor oil and ricinoleic acid induce contraction of the viscus smooth muscle. each gut and uterus motility is affected. 

    Prostaglandin receptors 2 are verified to be potential targets for drugs to induce laxation. 

    Colloquial name 

    English: Castor bean, Castor oil plant, Wonder tree 

    Tamil: ஆமணக்கு Amanakku, விளக்கெண்ணை Vilakkennai Kottaimuttu 

    Malayalam: Chittamankku, Gandharvahastakam, Kottamaram, Amandam, Erandam, Aavannakku

    Hindi: Arandi अरंडी

    Kannada: Oudla 

    Bengali: Veranda 

    Manipuri: কেগে Kege 

    Assamese: Era-gach 

    Mizoram: Mu-tih

    Dental uses

    Ricinus communis solution as an irrigant raised passageway dentin permeability due to its low superficial tension and therefore the moisturizing capacity, that will increase the contact of the solution with the tooth surface. 

    Cataphyll is fried in mustard oil and the smoke emitted by this process is inhaled for toothache. 

    The castor-oil plant detergent acts by breaking sugar escape of the cellular wall of infective microorganisms, consequently the loss of cytoplasmic material ends up in cell destruction. 

    2% Ricinus communis has been developed to be used as a denture cleanser. 

    In addition to its antimicrobial and cleansing potential, it's necessary to investigate whether or not this solution will have an effect on the properties of denture components, such as the acrylic denture teeth.

    48.Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Although S. dulcis is considered a weed in several parts of India and Bangladesh, its use in traditional medicine has led to overexploitation. 

    The plant is additionally found as a weed in Florida citrus groves.

    As a traditional medicine, S. dulcis has been used for diabetes in India and hypertension in Taiwan. 

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Lamiales

    Family: Plantaginaceae

    Genus: Scoparia

    Species: S. dulcis

    Medicinal uses

    In Siddha medicine it is employed for treatment of kidney stones, however it wants a rigorous diet method. it's called kallurukki (stone melter) in Tamil. 

    In Brazil, it's been used for varied problems such as hemorrhoids and wounds.S. dulcis plants are historically used as remedies for 

    • Abdomen trouble
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Bronchitis 
    • Analgesic 
    • Antipyretic agents. 

    Antidiabetic result of S. dulcis, obtained a glycoside named ammeline from recent plants that alleviated different ailments accompanying diabetes, such as pyorrhea, eye troubles, joint pain, susceptibleness to cold, etc., at intervals a very short amount of time. 

    Scopadulcic acid B inhibited the results of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). 

    Scopadulcic acid B conjointly inhibited TPA-enhanced lipoid synthesis in refined cells and inhibited the effect of TPA on tumour formation. 

    Diterpenoid scopadulcic acid A has activity against varied Plasmodium falciparum isolates with an IC50 of twenty seven mcM against the D6 clone (African Sierra isolate) and an IC50 of 19 mcM against the W2 clone (Indochina isolate). 

    Colloquial name

    English: Sweet Broom Weed, Sweet Broom Wort 

    Tamil: Sarakkotthini 

    Malayalam: Karakanjavu,Meenanganni,Kallurukki

    Hindi: मीठी पत्ती Mithi patti, घॊड़ा तुलसी Ghoda tulsi 

    Kannada: ಮೃಗಂದಿ/ಮೃಗಂಧಿ Mrigandi 

    Marathi: डुळस Dulas

    Mizoram: Perhpawngchaw

    Assamese: Bon-dhonia,Bon chini,Modhu-mehari

    Bengali: বন ধনিযা Bon dhonya 

    Nepali: पाताल मिश्री Paataal Mishree, चिनी झार Chinee Jhaar, मिर्मिरे झार Mirmire Jhaar, सल्ले झार Salle Jhaar, मिठा झार Mithaa Jhaar 

    Dental uses

    The leaves of Scoparia dulcis are stewed with water and so gargle for aching and full plant also used.

    49.Shorea robusta Roth 

    This tree is native to the Indian subcontinent, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to Nepal, India and Bangladesh. 

    In India, it extends from Assam, Bengal, Odisha and Jharkhand west to the Shivalik Hills in Haryana, east of the Yamuna. 

    The vary also extends through the Eastern Ghats and to the eastern Vindhya and Satpura ranges of central India. 

    In Hindu tradition, the sal tree is said to be favoured by Vishnu. 

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Malvales

    Family: Dipterocarpaceae

    Genus: Shorea

    Species: S. robusta

    Medicinal uses

    The medicine action of Shorea robusta are 

    • Anti-diarrhoeal
    • Antidysenteric
    • Antibacterial activity
    • Anti-microbial
    • Analgesic activity
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Anti-Inflammatory
    • Anti-Diabetic
    • Immunomodulatory activity
    • Kairomonal activity
    • Wound healing activity
    • Anti-nociceptive activity
    • Anti-ulcer activity
    • Antipyretic
    • Anti-obesity.

    In anaemia the powder of heart-wood of Shorea robusta or amalaka fruit ought to be taken with honey. 

    In numerous diseases of ear, the juice of amra, kapittha, madhuka, dhawa and Sala or oil cooked therewith is filled.

    Colloquial name

    English: Sal 

    Tamil: attam, venkungiliyam, kungiliyam, Sulukacamaram, Pantitturumaram, Kunkiliyamaram, Attam, Nitiyopam, Salam, Acuvakarnakam, Ulukalam,

    Malayalam: karimaruthu, kungiliyam, maramaram 

    Kannada: ಬಿಳಿಬೋವು Bilibovu, ಬಿಳಿಬೋಗಿ Bilibogi, ಸಾಲ Saala, ಅಶ್ವಕರ್ಣ Ashvakarna 

    Hindi: साल Sal, Salwa, Sakhu, Sakher 

    Marathi: sal, guggilu, rala, sajara 

    Bengali: Sal 

    Sanskrit: अग्निवल्लभ Agnivallabha, अश्वकर्ण Ashvakarna,अश्वकर्णिका Ashvakarnika, शाल Shaala

    Oriya: Sargi gatcho 

    Urdu: Ral, Safed dammar 

    Assamese: Borsal,Sal-goch,Sal,Hal

    Telugu: Gugal, Gugggilamm, Thamba

    Dental uses

    Sal tree young branches are used as toothbrushes.

    Sal leaves and root are used for tooth pain.

    Photo credit: J.M.Garg (Wikimedia Commons)

    50.Sida acuta Burm. f. 

    Sida acuta (Burm) may be a taproot and perennial shrub, native of Central America however these days it's pantropical distributed in many components of India. 

    The plant is native to Mexico and Central America but has evolved throughout the tropics and subtropics. 

    S. acuta is found on most soil types, except seasonally flooded clays or soils derived from limestone. 

    It's a weed that ordinarily dominates increased pastures, waste and anxious places roadside.

    Taxonomical classification

    Kingdom: Plantae

    Order: Malvales

    Family: Malvaceae

    Genus: Sida

    Species: S. acuta

    Medicinal uses

    The leaves of S. acuta are used as demulcent and diuretic. cooked in gingelly oil, they're used on testicular swellings and elephantiasis and to hasten suppuration. 

    The recent root of S. acuta is chewed for the treatment of infectious disease and diarrhoea. 

    The paste of the leaves is mixed with coconut oil and helpful on the head frequently for killing dandruffs and additionally for strengthening hair. 

    The plant showed many pharmacological applications together with 

    • Antiplasmodial
    • Antibacterial
    • Antifungal
    • Antioxidant
    • Cytotoxic activities 

    Whole plant of S. acuta had been found to have its own microbicide activity against S. dysenteriae, S. paratyphi B, and S. aureus and microbiostatic against K. ozaenae. 

    Antifungal activity of chloroform and ethanol leaf extract of S. acuta was reported against fungus albicans, and Aspergillus niger. 

    Methanol extracts of S. acuta were obtained against liver injury evoked by paracetamol dose as manifest from decreased blood serum levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. 

    Ethanol extract of the full plant of S. acuta features a moderate neutralizing activity against the haemorrhagic impact of Bothrops atrox venom. 

    S. acuta have important opposed proliferative activity, decrease of the viability of the cells during a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited weak cytotoxicity.

    Colloquial name

    English: Common Wireweed, Morning mallow, Common Fanpetals, Broom weed

    Tamil: அரிவாள்மனைப் பூண்டு Arivaḷmanaip puṇṭu, Palambasi, Malaidangi, Ponmusuttai,Karuncaranai,Vattatiruppi,Kayappundu,Malaikkurundali,Arivalmukkan,Ariva-mooku keerai,Malai-tangi,Appatta

    Malayalam: Malatanni Shiruparuva, Malamkurunthotti,Cheruparava,Kurunthotti,Shiruparuva, Anakurunthotti

    Hindi: Baraira 

    Sanskrit: Bala 

    Kannada: ಭೀಮನಕಡ್ಡಿ Bheemana kaddi, ವಿಷಕಡ್ಡಿ Visha kaddi 

    Marathi: चिकना Chikana 

    Nepali: बलु झार Balu Jhaar, कुरो Kuro, सानो चिल्या Saano Chilya 

    Mizo: Khingkhih

    Telugu: Muttavapulagamu, Thella antina, Sahadevi, Gaayapaaku, Vishabodui, Visaboddi, Chitimuti, Nelabenda 

    Oriya: Sunakhodika 

    Dental uses

    Sida acuta branches are used as toothbrushes to clean the teeth.

    Sida acuta have a tendency to decrease fluoride content in water hence it can be helpful in dental fluorosis which can stain the teeth to brown colour.

    Photo credit: J.M.Garg (Wikimedia Commons)



    (Note: There are so many medical and dental uses are there but this one post is not enough to say about these plants so in order to make short we cut shorted and only few properties were noted if you want to know more about these plants please comment us we will try to make unique post of single plant elaborately) 


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